The Continuum theory and the Levels of Health theory were separately proposed to explain the myriad responses to treatment and understand the process of health and disease in an individual.
An integrated perspective on transmutation of acute inflammation into chronic and the role of the microbiome
George Vithoulkas 1, 2 *
1. University of the Aegean, Syros, Greece
2. Postgraduate Doctors’ Training Institute, Health Care Ministry of the Chuvash Republic, Cheboksary, Russian Federation
The Continuum theory and the Levels of Health theory were separately proposed to explain the myriad responses to treatment and understand the process of health and disease in an individual. In light of accumulating evidence on the intricate relationship between the human immune system and microbiome, an attempt is made in this article to connect these two theories to explain the transmutation of the efficiently responding immune system (through the acute inflammatory response and high fever) to one involved in a low-grade chronic inflammatory process (resulting in chronic disease). There is already enough evidence to demonstrate the role of the microbiome in all chronic inflammatory diseases. In this article, we discuss the mechanism by which subjecting a healthy person to continuous drug treatment for acute inflammatory conditions (at a certain time) leads to transmutation to chronic disease. Although this hypothesis requires further experimental evidence, it calls for a reconsideration of the manner in which we treat acute infectious diseases in the population.
KEYWORDS: Inflammation, microbiota, antibiotics, immune system.