Serious mistakes in meta-analysis of homeopathic research
IACH - Prof. G. Vithoulkas
Serious mistakes in meta-analysis of homeopathic research

 

Also available in 

        

 

 

Serious mistakes in meta-analysis of
homeopathic research

 

Vithoulkas G
International Academy of Classical Homeopathy, Alonissos, Greece
 

Correspondence to: Prof. George Vithoulkas,
International Academy of Classical Homeopathy,
Alonissos 37005, Greece,
Phone: +30 24240 65142, Fax: +30 24240 65147, E-mail: george@vithoulkas.com

Received: September 24th, 2016 – Accepted: December 14th, 2016

 

 

Abstract
The article discussed the immanent problems of meta-analyses selecting a number of independent trials in homeopathy, within which, the purpose was to examine the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. Our focus lied in clarifying that the complex effects of homeopathic treatment known from history and day-to-day practice have not been respected so far.
The examination of most of the homeopathic trials showed that studies rarely account for homeopathic principles, in order to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. The main flaw was that trials reflect the point of view that the treatment with a specific remedy could be administered in a particular disease. However, homeopathy aims to treat the whole person, rather than the diseases and each case has to be treated individually with an individualized remedy. Furthermore, the commonly known events during the course of homeopathic treatment, such as “initial aggravation” and “symptom-shift” were not considered in almost all the studies. Thus, only few trials were eligible for meta-analyses, if at all. These and other factors were discussed and certain homeopathic principles were suggested to be respected in further trials. It is expected, that a better understanding of homeopathic principles would provide guidelines for homeopathic research, which are more acceptable to both homeopathy and conventional medicine.

Keywords: serious mistakes, meta-analysis, homeopathic research

 

READ FULL TEXT

 

 

input:focus, select:focus, textarea:focus { border-color: #bd2626; } a { color: #bd2626; } .radio i, .checkbox i { color: #bd2626; } .radio i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .button, .btn-default { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .button:hover { color: #bd2626; } .page-header-top { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-header-bottom-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-intro:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-intro:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-bg { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-bg:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-border { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .page-footer { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-1 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-1 i { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-2:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-2 i:after, .block-head-2 i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-3 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-3 i:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-4:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-7 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-7:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-bg .block-head-3 i { color: #bd2626; } .main-search button { color: #bd2626; } .main-search button:after { background: #bd2626; } .main-nav li a { color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li a:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li ul { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li li:hover > a, .main-nav li li.active > a, #block-newsletter-newsletter-subscribe .form-submit:hover, .block-product-details .add-wishlist .button-alt:hover, .block-product-details-2 .add-wishlist .button-alt:hover { color: #bd2626; } .main-nav .switcher { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav .mega > div { background-color: #bd2626; } #block-newsletter-newsletter-subscribe .form-submit, .btn-primary:hover, .btn-primary:focus, .btn-primary:active { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .art-portfolio ol li.active, .ui-slider-horizontal .ui-slider-handle, .ui-slider-horizontal .ui-slider-range, .btn-primary.link { background-color: #bd2626; } .btn-primary, .button:hover, .btn-default:hover, .btn-default:focus, .btn-default:active { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .btn-primary.link:hover, .btn-primary.link:focus, .btn-primary.link:active { color: #bd2626; } } @media screen and (max-width: 767px) { /* phone */ .main-nav ul { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li a { color: #ecf0f1; } .main-nav li ul { background: #e9e9e9; } .main-nav li li { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li li a { color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; color: #fff; } .main-nav li li ul { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav .mega ul li { border-top-color: #bd2626; } } .slider-revolution .fa:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .slider-revolution .title { border-top-color: 1px solid #bd2626; border-bottom-color: 1px solid #bd2626; } .slider-revolution .button-my { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .slider-revolution .button-my:hover { color: #bd2626; } .pagination-1 a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .pagination-1 .active, .pagination-1 .active:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .pagination-2 a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .pagination-2 .active, .pagination-2 .active:hover { background: #bd2626; } .pagination-3 a:before { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 1px #bd2626; } .pagination-3 .active:before, .pagination-3 .active:hover:before { background: #bd2626; } .pagination-4 a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; } .pagination-4 .active { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .pagination-5 a { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits div:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits i { color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-2 li i { color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-2 .tabs a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-2 .tabs .active a, .block-benefits-2 .tabs .active a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-3 i { color: #bd2626; } .block-about .button { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-about .button:hover { background: #bd2626; color: #ecf0f1; } .block-about .owl-prev:hover, .block-about .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-about-2 .bar { background: #bd2626; } .block-about-2 .value { color: #bd2626; } .block-about-4 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-about-5 .owl-prev, .block-about-5 .owl-next { display: inline-block; border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-about-5 .owl-prev:hover, .block-about-5 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-about-6 .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-mission .year { background: #bd2626; } .block-mission .years a:after { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works ol .active { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works .description { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works .description:before { border-right-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 h3 { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 .link { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 .fancybox { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-4:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-4 .fancybox { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-recent-works-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-6 a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-6 .owl-prev, .block-recent-works-6 .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-6 .owl-prev:hover, .block-recent-works-6 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ol li.active { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ul .pic span:after, .block-portfolio ul .pic span:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ul .pic span i { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic a { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-3 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-3 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-4 h3 { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-4 .link { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-4 .fancybox { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-5 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-5 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-5 .info:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-6 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-6 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-6 ul a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ul li:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ul a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-8 li div:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-8 li a { background: #bd2626; } .block-clients .owl-prev, .block-clients .owl-next { color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .carousel h3 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination .active { background: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-services li a { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-services li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-2 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-2 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-2 li a:hover:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-3 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:before { background: #bd2626; box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:hover:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-4 li a { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-4 li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-5 li i { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-5 li i:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 h3 span { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 li a { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 li a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .info i { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .active { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev:hover, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing dt { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing .price:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .inner { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .page-content-section .block-pricing .inner { box-shadow: 0 0 0 1px #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 dt { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 .price { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .inner { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-progress li i { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-team-2 .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-2 .icons a { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .icons a { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .info h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .pic span:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .icons a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .skills { border-top-color: #bd2626; border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-grid .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills .bar { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills-2 i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills-2 .bar { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-capabilities h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-capabilities-2 h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts .info { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-featured-posts .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .link { background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .date:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .date-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .zoom { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .link { background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .date:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .pic:hover .date { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .zoom { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .date:before, .block-blog-details .reply:before, .block-blog-details .type:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .date-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .share a:before { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .share a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .about:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active, .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .pic:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .badge { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626;; } .block-catalog-list .pic:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .badge:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev, .block-catalog-list .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-list .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626;; } .block-product-details .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:before { background-color: #bd2626; box-shadow: 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-info .owl-prev, .block-product-info .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-product-info .owl-prev:hover, .block-product-info .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-tabs .head .active { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-tabs .head .active:before { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart th { border-top-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .remove { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .remove:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .quantity a { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .empty td { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart-totals dd { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart-totals .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-checkout-order td:last-child { color: #bd2626; } .block-checkout-payment label { color: #bd2626; } .block-welcome .icons i:after { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-welcome .icons a:hover i { color: #bd2626; } .block-pasteboard:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-pasteboard .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-map-3 .block-head { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul li:after, .block-contacts ul li:before { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul li:before { background-color: #fff; } .block-contacts ul li span { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul .active { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul .active:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol li { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol li i:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-feedback .message i, .block-feedback-2 .message i { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found .pic div:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found-2 .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found-2 .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-coming-soon li:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-coming-soon-2 li:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories a:hover, .widget-categories a.active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-top-posts a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-text hr { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .widget-text em { color: #bd2626; } .widget-archive a:hover, .widget-archive a.active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-tags a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter .active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter .active span { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-range { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-handle { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-color-filter .active:before { border-color: #bd2626; } .widget-top-products .pic i { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav ul { background-color: #bd2626; }