A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome.
IACH - Prof. G. Vithoulkas
A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome.
  • Author(s)

    Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrick MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SP.

    Journal

    Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2004, Feb, 56, 2, 189-97.

    Notes

    In this well-controlled trial, where the practitioners, trial subjects and data analysts were all blinded to the group assignments until the end of the data collection period, individualised homeopathic prescriptions were compared to placebo in 79 people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (as determined by the Oxford criteria for CFS). The trial was carried out over a 6 month period with monthly observations used to determine clinical progress according to the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) as a primary measure and the Fatigue Impact Scale and Functional Limitations Profile as secondary measures. On the primary MFI measure, those using the individualised homeopathy had significant improvement over placebo.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE:

    There is no management regime for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) that has been found to be universally beneficial and no treatment can be considered a "cure". Patients with CFS may use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Our aim was to evaluate homeopathic treatment in reducing subjective symptoms of CFS.

    METHOD:

    Using a triple-blind design (patient and homeopath blind to group assignment and data analyst blind to group until after initial analyses to reduce the possibility of bias due to data analyst), we randomly assigned patients to homeopathic medicine or identical placebo. One hundred and three patients meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS were recruited from two specialist hospital out patient departments. Patients had monthly consultations with a professional homeopath for 6 months. Main outcome measures were scores on the subscales of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and proportions of each group attaining clinically significant improvements on each subscale. Secondary outcome measures were the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and the Functional Limitations Profile (FLP). Ninety-two patients completed treatment in the trial (47 homeopathic treatment, 45 placebo). Eighty-six patients returned fully or partially completed posttreatment outcome measures (41 homeopathic treatment group who completed treatment, 2 homeopathic treatment group who did not complete treatment, 38 placebo group who completed treatment, and 5 placebo group who did not complete treatment).

    RESULTS:

    Seventeen of 103 patients withdrew from treatment or were lost to follow-up. Patients in the homeopathic medicine group showed significantly more improvement on the MFI general fatigue subscale (one of the primary outcome measures) and the FLP physical subscale but not on other subscales. Although group differences were not statistically significant on four out of the five MFI subscales (the primary outcome measures), more people in the homeopathic medicine group showed clinically significant improvement. More people in the homeopathic medicine group showed clinical improvement on all primary outcomes (relative risk=2.75, P=.09).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    There is weak but equivocal evidence that the effects of homeopathic medicine are superior to placebo. Results also suggest that there may be nonspecific benefits from the homeopathic consultation. Further studies are needed to determine whether these differences hold in larger samples.

    Category: Human Studies

    External url

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15016577

input:focus, select:focus, textarea:focus { border-color: #bd2626; } a { color: #bd2626; } .radio i, .checkbox i { color: #bd2626; } .radio i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .button, .btn-default { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .button:hover { color: #bd2626; } .page-header-top { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-header-bottom-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-intro:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-intro:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-bg { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-bg:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-border { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .page-footer { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-1 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-1 i { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-2:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-2 i:after, .block-head-2 i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-3 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-3 i:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-4:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-7 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-head-7:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .page-content-section-bg .block-head-3 i { color: #bd2626; } .main-search button { color: #bd2626; } .main-search button:after { background: #bd2626; } .main-nav li a { color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li a:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li ul { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li li:hover > a, .main-nav li li.active > a, #block-newsletter-newsletter-subscribe .form-submit:hover, .block-product-details .add-wishlist .button-alt:hover, .block-product-details-2 .add-wishlist .button-alt:hover { color: #bd2626; } .main-nav .switcher { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav .mega > div { background-color: #bd2626; } #block-newsletter-newsletter-subscribe .form-submit, .btn-primary:hover, .btn-primary:focus, .btn-primary:active { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .art-portfolio ol li.active, .ui-slider-horizontal .ui-slider-handle, .ui-slider-horizontal .ui-slider-range, .btn-primary.link { background-color: #bd2626; } .btn-primary, .button:hover, .btn-default:hover, .btn-default:focus, .btn-default:active { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .btn-primary.link:hover, .btn-primary.link:focus, .btn-primary.link:active { color: #bd2626; } } @media screen and (max-width: 767px) { /* phone */ .main-nav ul { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li a { color: #ecf0f1; } .main-nav li ul { background: #e9e9e9; } .main-nav li li { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li li a { color: #bd2626; } .main-nav li li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; color: #fff; } .main-nav li li ul { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav .mega ul li { border-top-color: #bd2626; } } .slider-revolution .fa:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .slider-revolution .title { border-top-color: 1px solid #bd2626; border-bottom-color: 1px solid #bd2626; } .slider-revolution .button-my { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .slider-revolution .button-my:hover { color: #bd2626; } .pagination-1 a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .pagination-1 .active, .pagination-1 .active:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .pagination-2 a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .pagination-2 .active, .pagination-2 .active:hover { background: #bd2626; } .pagination-3 a:before { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 1px #bd2626; } .pagination-3 .active:before, .pagination-3 .active:hover:before { background: #bd2626; } .pagination-4 a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; } .pagination-4 .active { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .pagination-5 a { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits div:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits i { color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-2 li i { color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-2 .tabs a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-2 .tabs .active a, .block-benefits-2 .tabs .active a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-benefits-3 i { color: #bd2626; } .block-about .button { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-about .button:hover { background: #bd2626; color: #ecf0f1; } .block-about .owl-prev:hover, .block-about .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-about-2 .bar { background: #bd2626; } .block-about-2 .value { color: #bd2626; } .block-about-4 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-about-5 .owl-prev, .block-about-5 .owl-next { display: inline-block; border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-about-5 .owl-prev:hover, .block-about-5 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-about-6 .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-mission .year { background: #bd2626; } .block-mission .years a:after { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works ol .active { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works .description { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works .description:before { border-right-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 h3 { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 .link { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 .fancybox { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-4:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-4 .fancybox { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-recent-works-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-6 a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-6 .owl-prev, .block-recent-works-6 .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-recent-works-6 .owl-prev:hover, .block-recent-works-6 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ol li.active { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ul .pic span:after, .block-portfolio ul .pic span:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio ul .pic span i { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic a { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-3 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-3 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-4 h3 { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-4 .link { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-4 .fancybox { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-5 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-5 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-5 .info:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-6 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-6 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-6 ul a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ol li:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ol li.active { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ul li:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-7 ul a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-8 li div:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-portfolio-8 li a { background: #bd2626; } .block-clients .owl-prev, .block-clients .owl-next { color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .carousel h3 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination .active { background: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-services li a { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-services li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-2 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-2 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-2 li a:hover:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-3 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:before { background: #bd2626; box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:hover:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-4 li a { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-4 li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-5 li i { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-5 li i:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 h3 span { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 li a { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 li a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .info i { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .active { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev:hover, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing dt { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing .price:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .inner { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .page-content-section .block-pricing .inner { box-shadow: 0 0 0 1px #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 dt { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 .price { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .inner { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-progress li i { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-team-2 .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-2 .icons a { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .icons a { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .info h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .pic span:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .icons a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .skills { border-top-color: #bd2626; border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-grid .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills .bar { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills-2 i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills-2 .bar { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-capabilities h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-capabilities-2 h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts .info { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-featured-posts .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .link { background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .date:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .date-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .zoom { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .link { background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .date:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .pic:hover .date { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .zoom { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .date:before, .block-blog-details .reply:before, .block-blog-details .type:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .date-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .share a:before { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .share a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .about:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active, .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .pic:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .badge { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626;; } .block-catalog-list .pic:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .badge:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev, .block-catalog-list .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-list .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626;; } .block-product-details .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:before { background-color: #bd2626; box-shadow: 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-info .owl-prev, .block-product-info .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-product-info .owl-prev:hover, .block-product-info .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-tabs .head .active { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-tabs .head .active:before { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart th { border-top-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .remove { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .remove:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .quantity a { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .empty td { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart-totals dd { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart-totals .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-checkout-order td:last-child { color: #bd2626; } .block-checkout-payment label { color: #bd2626; } .block-welcome .icons i:after { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-welcome .icons a:hover i { color: #bd2626; } .block-pasteboard:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-pasteboard .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-map-3 .block-head { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul li:after, .block-contacts ul li:before { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul li:before { background-color: #fff; } .block-contacts ul li span { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul .active { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul .active:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol li { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol li i:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-feedback .message i, .block-feedback-2 .message i { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found .pic div:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found-2 .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found-2 .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-coming-soon li:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-coming-soon-2 li:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories a:hover, .widget-categories a.active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-top-posts a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-text hr { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .widget-text em { color: #bd2626; } .widget-archive a:hover, .widget-archive a.active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-tags a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter .active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter .active span { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-range { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-handle { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-color-filter .active:before { border-color: #bd2626; } .widget-top-products .pic i { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav ul { background-color: #bd2626; }