Cocculus indicus - By Farrington
IACH - Prof. G. Vithoulkas
Cocculus indicus cocc

Cocculus indicus owes its properties to an active principle called PICROTOXINE, this term being derived from two words meaning when combined, "bitter poison." You will notice by the schedule on the board that I have arranged the symptomatology of the remedy under two heads, first the nerves, and secondly, the organs in general.

Now, whatever individual characteristics you may have for a drug in an individual case, these characteristics should agree with the general effects of the drug ; otherwise, you are making a partial selection. To illustrate : Under BELLADONNA, you know of the symptom, "sleepy, but cannot get to sleep ;" that is characteristic of the remedy. But we find the same symptom under CINCHONA, FERRUM, and APIS. How are you to distinguish between them ? By taking the general effect of Belladonna as a groundwork, into which the particulars must fit.

Now, we shall find under Cocculus symptoms that are under many other drugs, but in no other drug do they hold the same relation as they do here. What, then, is the general effect of Cocculus indicus ? This effect is the well-known action of the drug on the cerebro-spinal system, it having very little influence on the nerves and the ganglionic system. How can you find this out? Not very easily, I confess, but yet this has been done, by studying the drug as a whole, by endeavoring to discover, by means of physiology, pathology, or any other science that bears on the subject, on what portions of the body it acts, what functions it alters, and what tissues it changes. Then you have a strong basis on which to build your symptomatology.

Cocculus acts on the cerebro-spinal system, producing great debility of these organs; the action of the drug on the brain itself I will explain to you when I come to speak of its use in typhoid fever. We will now consider the remedy as it affects the spinal cord. It causes a paralytic weakness of the spine, and especially of its motor nerves ;' thus we find it a certain or frequent remedy in paralysis originating in disease of the spinal cord. Especially is it indicated in the beginning of the trouble, whether it results from functional or from severe organic disease of the cord ; whether the disease be spinal irritation from loss of seminal fluid, softening of the spinal cord, or locomotor ataxia. It is especially indicated in these cases when the lumbar region of the spine is affected; there is weakness in the small of the back, as if paralyzed ; the small of the back gives out when walking. There is weakness of the legs; and by legs I mean the entire lower extremities; the knees give out when walking; the soles of the feet feel as if they were asleep ; the thighs ache as if they had been pounded; first one hand then the other goes to sleep; sometimes the whole arm falls asleep, and the hand feels as if swollen. These symptoms lie at the foundation of the symptomatology of the whole drug; they all seem to depend upon spinal weakness. We find these symptoms common enough in women with menstrual difficulties, when the back gives out in the morning, after venereal excesses, and also from loss of sleep. There is a concomitant symptom which you almost always find associated with those just mentioned, and that is a feeling of hollowness in some one of the cavities of the body, either in the head, chest, or abdomen. It is more than a weakness; it is an absolute feeling as though the parts were hollow. Talking tires these patients very much.

The debility of Cocculus is of spinal origin. Especially is it apt to follow loss of sleep; the patient cannot sit up even one or two hours later than usual in the evening without feeling languid and exhausted throughout the entire day following.

Let me next enumerate the typhoid symptoms of Cocculus; under this heading I shall speak of those of the brain. You would not expect Cocculus to be indicated in a case of typhoid fever when the changes in or ulceration of Peyer's patches were marked, or where there were profuse diarrhoea, pneumonia, and similar complications. But in the nervous type of the fever, when the cerebro-spinal system is bearing the brunt of the disease, Cocculus becomes one of the remedies that will help us through the case. The symptoms indicating it are the following: The patient complains of great vertigo, and this is made worse when sitting, or when attempting to change from a reclining to a sitting posture. It is often associated with nausea, inclination to vomit, and even fainting. BRYONIA also has this symptom. So far as the symptom itself is concerned, there is no difference between Bryonia and Cocculus, yet, if you examine the case thoroughly, you will find that in Cocculus it is weakness of the cerebro-spinal nerves that gives origin to the symptom. There is great confusion of the mind ; a sort of bewildered, heavy state might better explain what I mean. It requires a great effort to speak plainly. In some cases they cannot find the words they wish, to convey their meaning. Generally, such patients lie quietly wrapped in thought; the eyelids are heavy, as though they could hardly be lifted. Here is a symptom reminding you of Gelsemium. If the patient is still conscious enough to describe to you his condition, he will complain of a feeling of tightness of the brain, as though every nerve in the head were being drawn up tightly. At other times, he has this empty, hollow, vacant feeling in the head. Any attempt to move the patient produces faintness or even fainting away. The tongue is usually coated white or yellow; there is bitter taste in the mouth. The abdomen is greatly distended and tympanitic; this tympanites under Cocculus is not the same as under CINCHONA, CARBO VEG., COLCHICUM, SULPHUR, or even LYCOPODIUM.

There are several origins of tympanites. It may come from the bloodvessels, from the air swallowed with the food, from changes in the food itself, and also from its retention. The latter condition is the cause of the tympany under Cocculus indicus. It is not to be thought of as a remedy when flatus results from decomposition of food. That calls for CARBO VEG. Cocculus has considerable oppression of the lungs, this being of nervous origin. It is usually referred by the patient to the walls of the chest. The patients are sleepless, or at least business thoughts crowd on the mind and keep them in a half-waking state, here again resembling BRYONIA. These are the symptoms which lead you to Cocculus indicus in typhoid states.

The next division for consideration is "Spasms." COCCULUS INDICUS is useful in spasmodic affections when the patient is greatly debilitated as to the cerebro-spinal nervous system. Irritable weakness is the condition which gives rise to the spasms, for which Cocculus is the remedy. It is especially useful when spasmodic symptoms ensue as a result of prolonged loss of sleep. This condition we meet with more frequently in women than we do with men. The former are also more subject to spinal weakness. You may also use Cocculus for spasms after suppressed menses. The eyes are usually closed during these convulsions, and there is rapid oscillation of the eyeballs beneath the closed lids. But the woman must be of a weak, nervous temperament, or Cocculus is decreasingly indicated.

Under the heading "Organs" we still have a word to say about Cocculus. First, as to the headache. Some years ago there was an epidemic of spotted fever in this city. During that epidemic many children died, especially in its earlier days. After a while there was discovered a symptom characteristic of the epidemic, and that was intense headache in the occipital region, in the lower part of the back of the head, and in the nape of the neck. The intense headache was manifested in various ways. Children in a stupor would manifest it by turning the head back, so as to relieve the tension on the membranes of the brain; others, who were conscious, would put their hands to the back of the head; while still others complained of pain in the back of the head, as if the part were alternately opening and closing. That symptom was under Cocculus. There were very few fatal cases after Cocculus was used. Occipital headaches are hard to cure. Cocculus is a good remedy. GELSEMIUM is another. In the latter there is passive arterial congestion, by which I mean that the arterial blood flows freely to a part, the pulse being full and round, and not hard and tense, as under BELLADONNA or ACONITE. There is often thick speech, too, with Gelsemium.

Still another remedy for occipital headache is the JUGLANS CATHARTICA, sometimes called JUGLANS CINEREA, or the butternut. This I consider to be the best remedy for sharp pains in the occipital region.

We have already anticipated some of the symptoms of Cocculus pertaining to the female genital organs. Still there are others. The menses are either profuse, and coming too often and with a gush, and very debilitating, or they are tardy in their appearance, and the patient suffers each month from what has been termed menstrual colic. We have a little group of remedies, of which Cocculus is one, for this condition. The others are PULSATILLA and CHAMOMILLA. First let me describe the symptoms of Cocculus. This remedy is indicated by a colic, in which the pain is as if there were sharp stones rubbing against each other in the abdomen. There is very often with this colic excessive distension of the abdomen from accumulation of flatus. The colic is especially liable to come on at night and awaken the patient. It is relieved by belching, but returns again from the reaccumulation of flatus. The patient is, of course, irritable.

Under CHAMOMILLA the menstrual flow is very dark. The mental symptoms described to you in my lecture on that drug are necessarily present.

PULSATILLA has scanty menstrual flow, coming by fits and starts, griping pains doubling the patient up; but the disposition is mild and tearful.

CYCLAMEN is similar to Pulsatilla. It has chilliness with the pains ; crying, tearful mood; dyspepsia, made worse by eating fat food and pastry ; scanty menses ; menstrual colic. But we make the distinction here: Cyclamen does not have relief in the cool air or in a cool room, and in many cases Cyclamen has thirst. The resemblance between Cocculus and Cyclamen is that both remedies suit a depressed condition of the cerebro-spinal nervous system. Those of Cyclamen are these: The patient feels dizzy; is weak from any motion ; is highly anaemic; and usually worse when sitting up. These symptoms are usually associated with dimness of vision. We also find under Cyclamen this flatulent colic, arising of wind in the bowels, coming on at night, and only relieved by getting up and walking about. Compare also, in menstrual colic, IGNATIA and NUX VOMICA.

We will study the general system and the mind as usual. Cocculus slows down all the activities of the body and mind, producing a sort of paralytic weakness. Behind time in all its actions. All the nervous impressions are slow in reaching the centres. If you pinch this patient on the great toe he waits a minute and then says "oh," instead of doing it at once. In response to questions he answers slowly, after apparent meditation, but it is an effort to meditate. And so with all nervous manifestations, thought, muscular activity, etc. He cannot endure any muscular exertion, because he is weak; he is tired. First comes this slowness, then a sort of visible paralytic condition, and then complete paralysis. This may be local or general. There are certain causes which produce these effects. A wife nursing her husband, a daughter nursing her father, becomes worn out by the anxiety, worry and loss of sleep. She is exhausted; unable to sustain any mental or physical effort; weak in the knees, weak in the back, and when the time comes for her to sleep she cannot sleep. Sickness brought about in this manner is analogous to that caused by the Cocculus poison, and hence Cocculus from the time of Hahnemann to the present time has been a remedy for complaints from nursing, not exactly complaints that come on in the professional nurse, for Cocculus needs the combination of vexation, anxiety and prolonged loss of sleep, such as you have in the mother or daughter who is nursing, or the nurse when she takes on the anxiety felt by a member of the family; a wife nursing her husband through typhoid, or other long spell of sickness. At the end of it she is prostrated in body and mind, she cannot sleep, she has congestive headaches, nausea, vomiting and vertigo. That shows how a Cocculus case begins. One who is thus exhausted in body and mind goes out for a ride. She gets sick headache, pain in the back, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. She gets into the car to take a journey. Sick headache comes on. She goes on a mile or two and will have nausea, vomiting and sick headache. She feels weak all over, feels as if she would sink away.

 

The Cocculus patient gets into a wagon to ride, sick headache, nausea, vertigo come on. The Cocculus patient cannot endure motion. Aggravated by talking, by motion, by the motion of the eyes, by riding. Wants plenty of time to turn the head cautiously to see things. Wants plenty of time to move, to think, to do everything. The whole economy is slowed down, inactive.

 

Tremulous, tired, excitable. The hands tremble when taking hold of anything, or he takes hold of it awkwardly and drops it. Incoordination runs through this remedy, and hence it has been used with good effect in locomotor ataxia. It has staggering and numbness. Numbness is quite a feature of this remedy. Numbness of the lower extremities, in the fingers, in the shoulder, of the side of the face. Complaints from anxiety.

 

Extreme irritability of the nervous system. The least noise or jar is unbearable. You have heard that BELL. is worse from a jar. So is Cocculus, and quite like BELL. Cocculus is also like BELLADONNA in its sleeplessness, and other general conditions. This sensation of seasickness and dizziness is sometimes felt all over the body; a sort of faint feeling which is followed sometimes by loss of consciousness, or a paralytic rigidity. Stiffness of the joints is a common feature in Cocculus. It belongs to the limbs in general. But it is such a strong symptom I will mention it here. Limbs straightened out and held there for a while are painful when flexed. Persons who have been suffering from anxiety, prostrated, will lie on the back, straighten out the limbs, and get up only with great difficulty. The doctor comes and he discovers what is the matter. He bends the limbs and she screams, but she is relieved after the bending, and then she can get up and move about. You cannot find that anywhere else. It is entirely without inflammation. It is a sort of a paralytic stiffness, a paralysis of the tired body and mind. The Cocculus headaches and backaches, pains and distress are present. A man will stretch out his leg on a chair and he cannot flex it until he reaches down with his hands to assist. Such things are strange. Faintness on moving the body, fainting from pain in the bowels, from colic. With all this slowing down of the thoughts and activities the patient remains extremely sensitive to suffering, sensitive to pain.

 

Spasms through the body like electric shocks, convulsions after loss of sleep. This patient goes on with nervousness and excitement, anxiety and loss of sleep until convulsions supervene. Tetanus. Cholera, attacks of paralytic weakness with pain, paralysis of the face, of the eyes, paralysis of the muscles everywhere, paralysis of the limbs. Even diphtheria has been known to induce a state very much like I have described as due to loss of sleep and anxiety. I remember a case of paralysis of the lower extremities that was prescribed for by a very careful homeopathic physician many years ago. It was one of the things that surprised me in the early days of my prescribing and observation. It was the case of a little girl with paralysis of lower extremities after diphtheria and no hope was given. But Doctor Moore (he was then an Octogenarian) looked over the case. I was acquainted with the family and with the doctor. He studied the case carefully and gave Cocculus C.M. It was not many days before the child began to move the legs, and the condition was perfectly cleared up, and I have never ceased to wonder at it. It was a good prescription, perfectly in accord with all the elements of the case. Doctor Moore was one of the pupils of Lippe and Hering.

 

You can readily see what is coming when the mental activities are slowed down, from anxiety, and loss of sleep, such as we have in nursing. The mind appears like approaching imbecility, and as you look upon the true Cocculus case you wonder if that patient has hot been growing insane for a year or two, because the mind seems almost a blank. He looks into space and slowly turning the eyes toward the questioner answers with difficulty. It occurs in nervous prostration, in typhoid fever. It is so nearly like PHOSHORIC ACID that the two remedies must be carefully individualized. Time passes quickly. He cannot realize that it has been a whole night. A week has gone by, and it seems but a moment, he is so dazed. Slowness of comprehension; cannot find the right word to express his thoughts, so slowly does his mind work; what has passed he cannot remember; forgets what he has just read; cannot talk; cannot bear the least noise; cannot bear the least contradiction. The tongue will not respond. There is confusion of mind and difficulty of articulation. An idea comes into his mind and becomes fixed. He cannot convert it or move it, but it just stays there, and if he speaks he will say something that will cause you to realize that that same idea is holding on to him. So he appears to be in a state of imbecility. Mental derangement with vertigo. With most all the mental symptoms there is vertigo. He lies in a state of apparent unconsciousness, yet knows all that is going on and at times is even able to remember and describe what was going on, but does not even wink; does not move a muscle. There is an appearance of ecstacy, a smile upon the face. Knows what is going on, yet with complete relaxation of the muscles without speech or apparent recognition of anyone. Perfectly relaxed, and yet knowing what is going on. That resembles catatonia. Unable to think. Fears death. Feels as if some awful thing was about to happen. All this is the result of grief, anxiety, vexation, prolonged loss of sleep. The vertigo is usually attended with nausea. A Cocculus case cannot look out of the car window, cannot look down from the boat and see water moving, without nausea immediately.

 

Perhaps you can even now surmise what the head symptoms are to be. With the headaches comes dizziness, extreme nausea and gastric symptoms. Headaches brought on from riding in a wagon or riding in the cars or on shipboard; headache from motion. Cannot accommodate the eyes to moving objects; dizziness and whirling and headache. Congestion of the head, pressing, throbbing headache. Headache as if the skull would burst, or like a great valve opening and shutting. Sick headache with vertigo. Headache again from working in the sun. Sick headache from riding in a carriage.

 

Dim sightedness and disturbance of vision. Paralytic weakness of the muscles of the eyes, as well as the muscles of accommodation. The face becomes pale and sickly. Pale as death, with pains in the face, vertigo and nausea. Tearing pains in the face. Neuralgia of the face. Face bloated. Quivering and twitching of the muscles of the face. Paralysis of the muscles of the face. Numbness of the face. Twitching, jerking, numbness, paralysis, tearing pains.

 

Prostration and nervous exhaustion accompany most of the complaints of Cocculus.

 

Stomach symptoms. Loathing of food. Metallic taste in the mouth. Bitter taste in the mouth. Sour, nauseous taste in the mouth, and no food tempts him. He lies there sick with a little fever or a "cold." Headache, vertigo, nausea, loathing. Intermittent fevers with pains in the limbs, especially in the knees and bones of the legs, with that peculiar stiffness, nausea, and loathing of food. In intermittent fever or perhaps a low typhoid state, we have this loathing of food with nausea. You go to the bedside and you ask the nurse, "What have you been feeding the patient?" and the patient gags. The thought of food makes the patient gag. The nurse will say that every time she mentions food the patient gags. The thought of food or the smell of food in the other room, or in the kitchen, will nauseate the patient. Two medicines have this — Cocculus and COLCHICUM.

 

Paralytic conditions. Paralysis of the oesophagus. Cannot swallow. "Paralytic condition of the throat after diphtheria." Sore throat with low forms of fever. The fever is gone but the patient does not rally, there is much nervous trembling, numbness, twitching of muscles and great weakness. Sensation as though a worm were crawling in the stomach. Spasms of the stomach. Violent attacks of gastralgia, violent cramp of the stomach. Griping, pinching, constrictive pain. The pain in the bowels feels as if the intestines were PINCHED BETWEEN SHARP STONES. This causes fainting and vomiting. Colicky pains in the bowels; great distension of the abdomen, such as is found in typhoid fever; tension of the abdomen after drinking; flatulent colic. Tearing, cutting, spasmodic pains in the bowels. Radiating pains in the bowels accompanying diarrhoea. A paralytic condition of the rectum. Inability to press at stool. Urging to stool and burning in rectum. Disposition to stool, but peristaltic motion in upper intestines is wanting.

 

Copious menstrual flow, menses too soon; last too long. Catamenia two weeks before the time. In women prostrated from grief and from anxiety, and from prolonged loss of sleep, menses come too soon, are copious and prolonged. Headache, vertigo, nausea. Violent, cramping pains in the bowels, clutching pains in the uterus during menstruation. Again, just such a patient as described will have a suppression of the menstrual flow, or for weeks and months will have no menstrual flow; or just at the time the menstrual period should come on there is a copius LEUCORRHOEA THAT TAKES THE PLACE OF THE MENSES. The woman is emaciated, and grows more and more sickly and chlorotic. The face is of greenish, yellow, sallow hue. "Leucorrhoea in place of the menses," or "copious leucorrhoea between the menstrual periods."

 

The heart is weak, pulse feeble. Paralytic weakness in the limbs, numbness, jerking of the muscles, twitching, quivering, loss of sensation, loss of power, muscular weakness in all the limbs. Numbness and paralytic feeling in the limbs. Awkwardness of the fingers and hands. On attempting to grasp the one hand with the other there is migratory numbness, or a more permanent numbness associated with paralytic weakness, sometimes changeable; sometimes one side is numb and the other paralyed. The soles of the feet go to sleep. Numbness of the soles of the feet, such as we have in locomotor ataxia; cold feet. The knees give way from weakness. Totters while walking and threatens to fall to one side. Knees stiff. Paralysis of the lower extremities, proceeding from the small of the back. Arising from cold, from the abuse of MERCURY. Paralysis of the lower limbs, with stiffness, numbness and bruised feeling.

 

Sleeplessness from long nursing and from night watching; that is a symptom that I have called your attention to so often. Anxious, frightful dreams; ill effects from loss of sleep and night watching. "Slightest loss of sleep tells on him."

 

 

 

Cocculus indicus owes its properties to an active principle called PICROTOXINE, this term being derived from two words meaning when combined, "bitter poison." You will notice by the schedule on the board that I have arranged the symptomatology of the remedy under two heads, first the nerves, and secondly, the organs in general.

Now, whatever individual characteristics you may have for a drug in an individual case, these characteristics should agree with the general effects of the drug ; otherwise, you are making a partial selection. To illustrate : Under BELLADONNA, you know of the symptom, "sleepy, but cannot get to sleep ;" that is characteristic of the remedy. But we find the same symptom under CINCHONA, FERRUM, and APIS. How are you to distinguish between them ? By taking the general effect of Belladonna as a groundwork, into which the particulars must fit.

Now, we shall find under Cocculus symptoms that are under many other drugs, but in no other drug do they hold the same relation as they do here. What, then, is the general effect of Cocculus indicus ? This effect is the well-known action of the drug on the cerebro-spinal system, it having very little influence on the nerves and the ganglionic system. How can you find this out? Not very easily, I confess, but yet this has been done, by studying the drug as a whole, by endeavoring to discover, by means of physiology, pathology, or any other science that bears on the subject, on what portions of the body it acts, what functions it alters, and what tissues it changes. Then you have a strong basis on which to build your symptomatology.

Cocculus acts on the cerebro-spinal system, producing great debility of these organs; the action of the drug on the brain itself I will explain to you when I come to speak of its use in typhoid fever. We will now consider the remedy as it affects the spinal cord. It causes a paralytic weakness of the spine, and especially of its motor nerves ;' thus we find it a certain or frequent remedy in paralysis originating in disease of the spinal cord. Especially is it indicated in the beginning of the trouble, whether it results from functional or from severe organic disease of the cord ; whether the disease be spinal irritation from loss of seminal fluid, softening of the spinal cord, or locomotor ataxia. It is especially indicated in these cases when the lumbar region of the spine is affected; there is weakness in the small of the back, as if paralyzed ; the small of the back gives out when walking. There is weakness of the legs; and by legs I mean the entire lower extremities; the knees give out when walking; the soles of the feet feel as if they were asleep ; the thighs ache as if they had been pounded; first one hand then the other goes to sleep; sometimes the whole arm falls asleep, and the hand feels as if swollen. These symptoms lie at the foundation of the symptomatology of the whole drug; they all seem to depend upon spinal weakness. We find these symptoms common enough in women with menstrual difficulties, when the back gives out in the morning, after venereal excesses, and also from loss of sleep. There is a concomitant symptom which you almost always find associated with those just mentioned, and that is a feeling of hollowness in some one of the cavities of the body, either in the head, chest, or abdomen. It is more than a weakness; it is an absolute feeling as though the parts were hollow. Talking tires these patients very much.

The debility of Cocculus is of spinal origin. Especially is it apt to follow loss of sleep; the patient cannot sit up even one or two hours later than usual in the evening without feeling languid and exhausted throughout the entire day following.

Let me next enumerate the typhoid symptoms of Cocculus; under this heading I shall speak of those of the brain. You would not expect Cocculus to be indicated in a case of typhoid fever when the changes in or ulceration of Peyer's patches were marked, or where there were profuse diarrhoea, pneumonia, and similar complications. But in the nervous type of the fever, when the cerebro-spinal system is bearing the brunt of the disease, Cocculus becomes one of the remedies that will help us through the case. The symptoms indicating it are the following: The patient complains of great vertigo, and this is made worse when sitting, or when attempting to change from a reclining to a sitting posture. It is often associated with nausea, inclination to vomit, and even fainting. BRYONIA also has this symptom. So far as the symptom itself is concerned, there is no difference between Bryonia and Cocculus, yet, if you examine the case thoroughly, you will find that in Cocculus it is weakness of the cerebro-spinal nerves that gives origin to the symptom. There is great confusion of the mind ; a sort of bewildered, heavy state might better explain what I mean. It requires a great effort to speak plainly. In some cases they cannot find the words they wish, to convey their meaning. Generally, such patients lie quietly wrapped in thought; the eyelids are heavy, as though they could hardly be lifted. Here is a symptom reminding you of Gelsemium. If the patient is still conscious enough to describe to you his condition, he will complain of a feeling of tightness of the brain, as though every nerve in the head were being drawn up tightly. At other times, he has this empty, hollow, vacant feeling in the head. Any attempt to move the patient produces faintness or even fainting away. The tongue is usually coated white or yellow; there is bitter taste in the mouth. The abdomen is greatly distended and tympanitic; this tympanites under Cocculus is not the same as under CINCHONA, CARBO VEG., COLCHICUM, SULPHUR, or even LYCOPODIUM.

There are several origins of tympanites. It may come from the bloodvessels, from the air swallowed with the food, from changes in the food itself, and also from its retention. The latter condition is the cause of the tympany under Cocculus indicus. It is not to be thought of as a remedy when flatus results from decomposition of food. That calls for CARBO VEG. Cocculus has considerable oppression of the lungs, this being of nervous origin. It is usually referred by the patient to the walls of the chest. The patients are sleepless, or at least business thoughts crowd on the mind and keep them in a half-waking state, here again resembling BRYONIA. These are the symptoms which lead you to Cocculus indicus in typhoid states.

The next division for consideration is "Spasms." COCCULUS INDICUS is useful in spasmodic affections when the patient is greatly debilitated as to the cerebro-spinal nervous system. Irritable weakness is the condition which gives rise to the spasms, for which Cocculus is the remedy. It is especially useful when spasmodic symptoms ensue as a result of prolonged loss of sleep. This condition we meet with more frequently in women than we do with men. The former are also more subject to spinal weakness. You may also use Cocculus for spasms after suppressed menses. The eyes are usually closed during these convulsions, and there is rapid oscillation of the eyeballs beneath the closed lids. But the woman must be of a weak, nervous temperament, or Cocculus is decreasingly indicated.

Under the heading "Organs" we still have a word to say about Cocculus. First, as to the headache. Some years ago there was an epidemic of spotted fever in this city. During that epidemic many children died, especially in its earlier days. After a while there was discovered a symptom characteristic of the epidemic, and that was intense headache in the occipital region, in the lower part of the back of the head, and in the nape of the neck. The intense headache was manifested in various ways. Children in a stupor would manifest it by turning the head back, so as to relieve the tension on the membranes of the brain; others, who were conscious, would put their hands to the back of the head; while still others complained of pain in the back of the head, as if the part were alternately opening and closing. That symptom was under Cocculus. There were very few fatal cases after Cocculus was used. Occipital headaches are hard to cure. Cocculus is a good remedy. GELSEMIUM is another. In the latter there is passive arterial congestion, by which I mean that the arterial blood flows freely to a part, the pulse being full and round, and not hard and tense, as under BELLADONNA or ACONITE. There is often thick speech, too, with Gelsemium.

Still another remedy for occipital headache is the JUGLANS CATHARTICA, sometimes called JUGLANS CINEREA, or the butternut. This I consider to be the best remedy for sharp pains in the occipital region.

We have already anticipated some of the symptoms of Cocculus pertaining to the female genital organs. Still there are others. The menses are either profuse, and coming too often and with a gush, and very debilitating, or they are tardy in their appearance, and the patient suffers each month from what has been termed menstrual colic. We have a little group of remedies, of which Cocculus is one, for this condition. The others are PULSATILLA and CHAMOMILLA. First let me describe the symptoms of Cocculus. This remedy is indicated by a colic, in which the pain is as if there were sharp stones rubbing against each other in the abdomen. There is very often with this colic excessive distension of the abdomen from accumulation of flatus. The colic is especially liable to come on at night and awaken the patient. It is relieved by belching, but returns again from the reaccumulation of flatus. The patient is, of course, irritable.

Under CHAMOMILLA the menstrual flow is very dark. The mental symptoms described to you in my lecture on that drug are necessarily present.

PULSATILLA has scanty menstrual flow, coming by fits and starts, griping pains doubling the patient up; but the disposition is mild and tearful.

CYCLAMEN is similar to Pulsatilla. It has chilliness with the pains ; crying, tearful mood; dyspepsia, made worse by eating fat food and pastry ; scanty menses ; menstrual colic. But we make the distinction here: Cyclamen does not have relief in the cool air or in a cool room, and in many cases Cyclamen has thirst. The resemblance between Cocculus and Cyclamen is that both remedies suit a depressed condition of the cerebro-spinal nervous system. Those of Cyclamen are these: The patient feels dizzy; is weak from any motion ; is highly anaemic; and usually worse when sitting up. These symptoms are usually associated with dimness of vision. We also find under Cyclamen this flatulent colic, arising of wind in the bowels, coming on at night, and only relieved by getting up and walking about. Compare also, in menstrual colic, IGNATIA and NUX VOMICA.

Menispermum cocculus, Cocculus indicus, Cocculus suberosus, Anamirta cocculus." The seeds or berries are the parts used in medicine.

This substance was employed by the ancients as a poison for fish, stupefying them, and rendering it easy to catch them. It is stated that the half-ripe, bruised berries, being formed into little pellets and thrown into the water, are eagerly devoured by the fish, which thereupon are soon seized with dizziness, and, after whirling around, remain motionless, and float on the surface of the water. It is stated that if the fish have eaten any considerable quantity of the Cocculus before succumbing to its influence, their flesh becomes poisonous.

The active poisonous principle of Cocculus is stated to be picrotoxin. Recent toxicological experiments have been made with this substance. It is probable, however, that this does not comprise the entire active principle of the Cocculus, any more than strychnia does that of Nux vomica or quinia of Cinchona.

In consequence of its use as a means of stupe-fying fish, and also as the basis of an infusion for the destruction of pediculi and other vermin, cases of poisoning with it have been recorded from time to time. It has been, and still is, extensively used in Great Britain for the purpose of adulterating malt liquors, it being supposed greatly to increase their intoxicating properties, and also to prevent the secondary fermentation.

Cocculus was first introduced into the materia medica, and used as a remedy in the treatment of diseases, by Hahnemann.

He published, in 1805, in the " Fragmenta de Viribus Medicamentorum Positivis,"—the germ of the "Materia Medica Pura,"—156 symptoms of Cocculus, together with a few observations from other authors.

He had already, in an " Essay on a new Principle for ascertaining the Curative Powers of Drugs," published in Hufeland's "Journal of Practical Medicine," in 1796, stated, on the authority of Amatus Lusitanus, some symptoms produced by Cocculus in the healthy subject, and had used this language: "Our successors will find in Cocculus a very powerful medicine when the morbid phenomena it produces shall be more accurately known."

In "Hufeland's Journal," in 1798, Hahnemann published a case of poisoning, occurring in a healthy man, from a single grain of the Cocculus seed. To this we shall recur at a later period, only stating here that Hahnemann relieved the man with Camphor.

In volume one of the " Materia Medica Pura," Hahnemann published a proving of Cocculus in 1811. Some additional symptoms were contributed by Hartlaub and Trinks, in their " Pure Materia Medica," and Hahnemann incorporated these (with three exceptions) into his own proving in the second edition of the first volume of his " Materia Medica Pura," published in 1830. This last publication we shall make the basis of our study.

In the introduction, Hahnemann says that " Cocculus will be found curative where the symptoms correspond, in certain forms of sneaking, insidious, nervous fevers; in so-called abdominal cramps ; and so-called spasmodic pains of other parts of the body, etc., etc. ; in not a few cases of paralysis of the extremities, and in mental affections." From the publication of this proving to the present day, the records of the Homeopathic Clinique have furnished, from time to time, cases in abundance corroborating these statements; and yet, in 1848 (Canstatt's " Jahresbericht," p. 137), Tschudi announces the discovery that Cocculus " acts chiefly on those parts of the nervous system which control muscular action," and has the impudence to claim as original the suggestion to use picrotoxin " in paralysis of the extremities and of the sphincters;" and Reil, acting on this suggestion, employed a tincture of the seeds of Cocculus, with success, in chorea, in hemiplegia from cold, and in paralysis of the bladder from the same cause. (" Materia Medica der reinen Pflanzenstoffe," p. 220.)

Turning now to Hahnemann's proving of Cocculus, in volume one of the second edition of the "Materia Medica Pura," we proceed to make, in conformity with a schema for the study of the materia medica published in the "American Homeopathic Review," vol. 3, the following

Special Analysis

HEAD. SENSORIUM, Vertigo. Cocculus produces a well-marked vertigo, described as like drunkenness. It occurs when sitting up in bed, is a whirling vertigo, is always accompanied by nausea, which, together with the vertigo, compels a resumption of the recumbent position; accompanied by a peculiar dullness in the forehead, as if there were a board in front of the head.

In the condition of circumstance this vertigo resembles that of Bryonia (it occurs when sitting up in bed, and compels a recumbent posture).

INTELLIGENCE. Dullness ; distraction ; difficulty in understanding what is heard or read, and in appreciating the lapse of time; the prover sits as if sunk in thought, not regarding what occurs about him.

MEMORY. Weakened. As a general thing the symptoms of the sensorium are aggravated by any mental effort of any kind.

HEADACHE. Location; chiefly in the forehead and temples; somewhat in the vertex. Pains pass from over the right eye into the head; also, pressing pains extend downward in the whole head; from the temples inward.

Sensation. The chief and controlling sensations are dullness, pressure, compression, constriction ; a headache is also described as compounded of the above sensations, together with digging and boring. There are also stitches in the temples, and in the right frontal region. Hahnemann gives a special prominence to the following symptom: " Headache, as if the eyes would be torn out."

Conditions. These sensations, both the dullness and the pains, and particularly the pressing pain in the head and forehead, occur in the forenoon; are very much aggravated by reading and thinking, and particularly by eating and drinking; also by walking.

The muscles of parts of the head are affected in a manner which we shall see to be characteristic of Cocculus. There is cramp-like pain in the left temporal muscle; pain as if the eyes were forcibly closed ; convulsive trembling of the head.

EYES. Lids. Pressing pain, with inability to open the eyes at night. Dryness.

Globe. Stitches from within outward; feeling as if the eyes were torn out.

Special sense. The pupils are contracted. Muscae volitantes; a black figure seems to float before the eye, moving as the eye moves, yet without impairing vision. Hahnemann emphasizes the symptom "obscured vision."

In the symptoms of the head we perceive no evidence of organic change. The symptoms are such as accompany gastric disturbances and the dyscratic conditions on which continued fever is supposed to depend. No organic changes seem to be produced in the eye; but the symptoms of the special sense point to commencing amaurosis, a paralytic condition of the optic nerve, similar, perhaps, to that produced by Cocculus in the muscular nerves.

EARS. Attacks of deafness, and of noise in the ears like the rushing of water, attended by deafness.

These symptoms have the same significance as those of the head.

NOSE. Increased sensibility to odors.

FACE. The pains are confined to the region of the malar bone and the masseter muscles, where they are pressive and benumbing and cramp-like, increased by opening the jaw. Redness of the cheeks and heat in the face, without thirst. Swelling of the sub-maxillary glands. The features are sometimes distorted.

TEETH. The teeth are long and loose.

MOUTH. Dryness without thirst. The saliva is frothy.

Taste. Coppery, metallic, sour after eating and coughing; bitter taste on the base of the tongue.

TONGUE. Yellow coat upon the tongue. The tongue seems paralyzed, so that speech is difficult; pain at the base of the tongue when stretching the tongue out.

THROAT. Externally. Stiffness of the cervical muscles. Paralytic drawing of the sides of the throat. The muscles seem weak and the head heavy ; he must support the head; is most relieved by leaning it back.

Internally. Dryness and roughness, especially when swallowing. Dryness high in the fauces. Burning in the palate. Sensation of swelling at the root of the tongue. A feeling of constriction in the fauces which impedes respiration. A kind of paralysis, preventing swallowing.

The above symptoms point to no organic changes, but indicate rather a kind of paralysis of isolated groups of muscles, E. G., the sterno-cleido-mastoid, the constrictors of the pharynx, the lingual.

STOMACH. In the epigastrium, over the stomach and extending to the hypochondria and into the chest, a pressing, pinching, constricting, cramp-like pain, which takes away the breath ; occurs and is worse after eating and drinking; also when walking; is worse from cold ; is accompanied by nausea.

Appetite. Loss of appetite; disgust for food, the very smell of which is offensive ; at the same time a sensation of hunger at the epigastrium; aversion to acids; bread tastes sour.

Thirst. Aversion to drinking, and yet great thirst.

Nausea. Great nausea is a characteristic symptom of Cocculus. It is provoked by eating, drinking, by motion, by becoming cold, especially by driving in a wagon; by sudden change of posture. It occurs in connection with the headache and the pains in the intestines.

Eructations. Bitter, putrid, causing sore pain in the epigastrium and chest. Incomplete eructation, hiccough and spasmodic yawning.

The attacks of nausea sometimes produce fainting.

ABDOMEN. Pressure ; sticking and cutting pains in various parts of the abdomen, chiefly around the navel. Feeling of emptiness in the abdomen.

FLATUS. Rumbling in the abdomen; great distention ; incarceration of flatus ; severe flatulent colic at night.

HYPOGASTRIUM. Constricting pain, with pressure toward the genitals, and qualmishness in the epigastrium. Disposition to inguinal hernia, with pain and soreness. Rupture-pain worse on the right side; fullness in the groin, with a sensation as if all would give way there. (Singular and characteristic symptoms.)

STOOL. Constipation. Stool followed by violent tenesmus in the rectum, producing faintness, also diarrhoea; small frequent stools, each accompanied by flatus.

RECTUM. Disposition to stool, but th'e peristaltic motion in the upper intestines is wanting.

ANUS. Itching.

URINARY ORGANS. Frequent discharge of watery urine.

GENITAL ORGANS. Sore and sticking pains in the testes. Itching of the scrotum. Alternate excitement and depression, the former being probably the primary action. Menses suppressed. Menstruation difficult, attended with violent spasmodic pain in the abdomen and loins, increased by motion, cold and contact.

RESPIRATORY ORGANS. Dyspnoea, as if from constriction of the larynx. Sneezing, coryza, disposition to cough, from an irritation high up in the larynx ; from constriction of the chest. The cough is increased by indulging the disposition to cough, as is the case with the cough of Ignatia. Fine stitches in various parts of the chest; feeling of emptiness in the chest; palpitation and anxiety.

In the above symptoms no local organic affection is evident. They may all be ascribed to an affection of the spinal marrow or nerves (functional or organic).

BACK. Spasmodic constriction through the whole length of the spine, especially on motion.

SACRUM. Paralytic pain extending over the hips, interfering with walking, along with an anxious, apprehensive disposition.

LOINS. Paralytic pressure, tearing, drawing as if broken, as if stiff. All these pains are increased by motion and by cold.

UPPER EXTREMITIES. Paralysis of the hand when writing. Pains in the bones, as if bruised ; in the arms, felt on lifting the arms. The arms go to sleep. Hot swelling of the hands.

LOWER EXTREMITIES. Paralytic immobility, extending from the sacrum. Sore pain of the thigh. Inflammation and swelling of the knee (?). Burning in the feet.

SLEEP. Coma. Coma vigil. Absence of sleep from anxiety and bodily restlessness. Anxious dreams.

FEVER. No definite typical fever. Constant chilliness, while yet the skin is hot. In the evening chills run down the back. Exhausting sweat during motion.

DISPOSITION. Mild, indolent, despondent in the face of difficulties, excessive anxiety, fearfulness; intolerance of noise or any disturbing influence.

General Analysis

VITAL POWER. Cocculus exercises what may be called a purely depressing action upon the vital power. This action is called pure because it is not, so far as we know, dependent upon any change in the organic substance. Thus the sensorium is benumbed, as the marked vertigo and confusion show. Of the special senses, that of vision is so distinctly impaired as to remind one of incipient amaurosis ; but the most marked action of this character is exhibited in the voluntary muscular system, paralysis more or less complete being produced in the eyelids and in the muscles of the face, the tongue, the pharynx, and of the extremities, particularly of the lower extremities; of this nature, perhaps, are the symptoms of the inguina, resembling hernia.

ORGANIC SUBSTANCE. While the action upon the vital power is, as has been seen, very marked and definite, that upon the organic substance is scarcely perceptible. The circulation is but little affected. The evacuation is scarcely altered, though, as might be expected from the depression produced in the general vital power, the secretion from the surface of the intestine is diminished. Eruptions are mentioned in the proving, but in so indefinite and isolated a way that we can hardly attach to them any physiological significance.

SPHERE OF ACTION. Pre-eminently the system of animal life. The vegetative system is hardly affected at all. The voluntary muscular system first, and then the sensorium, are the primary seats of action. In addition to the above, and not evidently connected with it, must be mentioned the action of Cocculus upon the stomach and digestion. Nausea, extending to the point of vomiting, and accompanied by faintness and by severe vertigo when lifting the head, is a characteristic symptom. The nausea is felt from the epigastrium to the throat. It is accompanied by a sensation of constriction around the waist, is aggravated by eating, drinking, by motion, by mental exertion, and in the open air. The taste is bitter and metallic.

The appetite is completely wanting.

SENSATIONS. A general sensation of lassitude, which makes the least exertion, even standing, very irksome. Syncope often follows any bodily exertion. In the extremities, drawing and digging pains in the bones, but more frequently a weakness as if paralyzed. Sometimes this sensation is accompanied by twitchings of isolated groups of muscles.

PERIODICITY. Not at all marked in Cocculus.

PECULIARITIES. The symptoms of Cocculus in general, and particularly those of the head, are aggravated by eating, drinking, any bodily or mental exertion, by tobacco smoke, and by cold air. They are accompanied by a great intolerance of fresh air; in fact, all the functions of animal life seem to be more or less torpid, and intolerant of any stimulus. There is a constant disposition to sleep, and yet the sleep is restless, interrupted by frequent wakings and startings, so that in the morning one is still sleepy. As regards the disposition, the prover seems sunk in deep thought of an unpleasant and rather sad character. Nevertheless he is easily roused to anger.

In many respects Cocculus reminds one of Pulsatilla, which also depresses the vital power, but the symptoms of Pulsatilla are ameliorated by cold and by motion, and the disposition of Pulsatilla is gentle and yielding. In its action upon the digestive organs, Cocculus resembles Nux vomica; the characteristics, particularly the conditions of aggravation, distinguish them. Moreover, Nux vomica affects the vegetative system quite as much as the animal. Cocculus resembles Ignatia somewhat in the almost simultaneous appearance of seemingly incongruous symptoms. It is probable that we shall find a closer analogy to Cocculus in Tobacco than in any other remedy.

Applications

Hahnemann recommends Cocculus in certain kinds of insidious, nervous fevers. In this Hartmann agrees with him, and says: "Particularly in cases which have been produced by frequent fits of anger, or are accompanied by great disposition to anger." Hahnemann recommends it also in several kinds of spasm, as, for example, in menstrual colic, resulting from sudden suppression, or hindered coming on of the menses; in spasmodic flatulent colic. Its chief application, perhaps, is in the treatment of paralysis of the extremities, particularly in hemiplegia. Cocculus has proved a very valuable remedy in sea-sickness; and has cured many persons of a tendency to nausea and faintness from riding in a wagon. Dr. Curie has found Cocculus a valuable remedy, along with Nux vomica and Antimonium crudum, in the various forms of dyspepsia from over eating and drinking, which are common among a certain class of the English people.

The following remarks by Dr. Wurmb ("Clinische Studien," 1, Typhus, p. 124) give a clear picture of that kind of slow nervous fever to which Cocculus is adapted:

After dividing typhus into several groups, in all of which the systems of vegetable and animal life are affected to an equal extent, he says that other cases occur which may be divided into two groups. " In the one, the system of vegetable life is profoundly involved, while the animal life is scarcely at all affected. For this group Veratrum is the chief remedy. In the other, the animal life is pre-eminently involved ; vegetation is hardly affected. For this group Cocculus is appropriate." He says: "The patients complain at first of lassitude, prostration after the slightest exertion, difficulty in thinking, loss of memory, loss of appetite, and invincible disposition to sleep. They soon feel so weak that they must keep the bed, and they fall into an apathetic condition, which ends in actual coma. If awakened out of this, they complain of vertigo, of a feeling as if a heavy load were pressing upon the head, of weakness, and a paralyzed feeling in the limbs, but especially in the eyelids, which they can hardly keep open. Sometimes, instead of the paralyzed feeling, there is a sensation of twitching and jerking. The patients think correctly but slowly. They soon fall back into the comatose condition; the expression of countenance is devoid of all signs of mental activity. This condition is not uninterrupted; for there occur sometimes intervals of moderate excitement, during which the patients, awakened from their stupor, look eagerly around, move themselves quickly, and, by the hastiness of their replies, seem to seek to hide their lack of force; sometimes there is mild, uneasy delirium.

"In this torpid condition of the nervous functions the rest of the organism participates but little. The pulse is weaker, it is true, but seldom sinks below the average frequency, often even rises above it. The temperature remains normal or changes but little; the skin is pale but lax; the tongue moderately coated, sometimes even clean ; the bowels generally constipated, diarrhoea rarely present; the respiratory mucous membrane almost never involved.

"Symptoms of a blood dyscrasia, such as exanthemata, decubitus, haemorrhages, are never observed. The spleen is always swollen."

Among the applications of Cocculus must not be forgotten its use in inguinal and femoral hernia, of which several cases are recorded as cured by Cocculus ; among them one in which four herniae existed simultaneously. Precisely what cases are curable by Cocculus it is not easy to say A PRIORI. Other remedies, as, for example, Nux vomica, Aurum and Nux moschata, have also cured hernia. Until the functional pathology of hernia shall be better understood, it will be impossible to divide the affection into groups corresponding to the different modes of treatment, or different remedies which experience has shown to be useful. While the affection is, by most practitioners, regarded as exclusively a mechanical accident, to be met by surgical methods, the history of many cases and experience in their cure, shows them to be amenable to dynamic agencies.

In all of these applications, as in others which may be made of Cocculus to the treatment of diseased conditions, the similarity of the symptoms must be our only sufficient guide.

 

COCCULUS INDICUS MENISPERMACEAE

 

For women and children with light hair and eyes, who suffer severely during menstruation and pregnancy; unmarried and childless women.

 

Adapted to book-worms; sensitive, romantic girls with irregular menstruation; rakes, onanists and persons debilitated by sexual excesses.

 

Nausea or vomiting from riding in carriage, boat or railroad car (Arn., Nux m.), OR EVEN LOOKING AT A BOAT IN MOTION; sea-sickness; car-sickness.

 

Headache: in nape and occiput; extending to the spine; as if tightly bound by cord; with nausea, as if at sea; at each menstrual period; < lying on back of head.

 

Sick-headache from carriage, boat or train riding.

 

Diseases peculiar to drunkards.

 

Loss of appetite, with metallic taste (Mer.).

 

TIME PASSES TOO QUICKLY (too slowly, Arg. n., Can. I.).

 

Great lassitude of the whole body; it requires exertion to stand firmly; feels too weak to talk loudly.

 

Bad effects: from loss of sleep, MENTAL EXCITEMENT AND NIGHT WATCHING; feel weak if they lose but one hour's sleep; convulsions after loss of sleep; of anger and grief.

 

Trembling of arms and legs; from excitement, exertion of pain.

 

Vertigo, as if intoxicated upon rising in bed; or by motion of the carriage (Bry.).

 

Sensation: in abdomen of cutting and rubbing on every movement, as of sharp stones; of hollowness in head and other parts (Ign.).

 

During the effort to menstruate she is so weak she IS SCARCELY ABLE TO STAND from weakness of lower limbs (Alum., Carbo an.) ; after each period haemorrhoids.

 

Leucorrhcea in place of menses, or between periods (Iod., Xan.) ; like the washings of meat; like serum, ichorous, bloody; during pregnancy.

 

Cannot bear contradiction; easily offended; every trifle makes him angry; speaks hastily (Anac).

 

When fever assumes a slow, "sneaking," nervous form, with vertigo; with disposition to anger.

 

 

Relations

Compare: Ign. and Nux, in chorea and paralytic symptoms; Ant. t, in sweat of affected parts.

 

Has cured umbilical hernia with obstinate constipation, after Nux failed.

 

 

 

Aggravation

Eating, drinking, sleeping, smoking, talking; carriage riding, motion or swing of ship; rising up during pregnancy.

 

 

 

 

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} .block-portfolio-8 li a { background: #bd2626; } .block-clients .owl-prev, .block-clients .owl-next { color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .carousel h3 { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination .active { background: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-services li a { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-services li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-2 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-2 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-2 li a:hover:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-3 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:before { background: #bd2626; box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-services-3 li a:hover:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-4 li a { border-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-4 li a:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-services-5 li i { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-5 li i:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 h3 span { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 li a { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-services-6 li a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .info i { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .active { background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev:hover, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing dt { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing .price:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .inner { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing li:hover .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .page-content-section .block-pricing .inner { box-shadow: 0 0 0 1px #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 dt { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 .price { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .inner { background: #bd2626; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-progress li i { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-team-2 .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-2 .icons a { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .icons a { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-3 .info h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .pic span:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .icons a:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-team-list .skills { border-top-color: #bd2626; border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-team-grid .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills .bar { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills-2 i:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-skills-2 .bar { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-capabilities h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-capabilities-2 h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts .info { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more { color: #bd2626; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more:hover { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-featured-posts .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .link { background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .date:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .date-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-list .zoom { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .link { background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .date:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .pic:hover .date { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-grid .zoom { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .date:before, .block-blog-details .reply:before, .block-blog-details .type:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .date-alt { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .share a:before { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .share a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-blog-details .about:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view a:hover { border-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active, .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active:hover { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .pic:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .badge { background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626;; } .block-catalog-list .pic:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .badge:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev, .block-catalog-list .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-list .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626;; } .block-product-details .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:before { background-color: #bd2626; box-shadow: 0 0 0 2px #bd2626; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-info .owl-prev, .block-product-info .owl-next { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-product-info .owl-prev:hover, .block-product-info .owl-next:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-tabs .head .active { color: #bd2626; } .block-product-tabs .head .active:before { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart th { border-top-color: #bd2626; color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .price { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .remove { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .remove:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .quantity a { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart .empty td { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart-totals dd { color: #bd2626; } .block-shopping-cart-totals .button-alt { color: #bd2626; } .block-checkout-order td:last-child { color: #bd2626; } .block-checkout-payment label { color: #bd2626; } .block-welcome .icons i:after { border-color: #bd2626; background: #bd2626; } .block-welcome .icons a:hover i { color: #bd2626; } .block-pasteboard:before { background: #bd2626; } .block-pasteboard .icons a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .block-map-3 .block-head { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul li:after, .block-contacts ul li:before { border-color: #bd2626; background-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul li:before { background-color: #fff; } .block-contacts ul li span { border-bottom-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul .active { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ul .active:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol li { color: #bd2626; } .block-contacts ol li i:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-feedback .message i, .block-feedback-2 .message i { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found h3 { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found .pic:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found .pic div:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found-2 .button { color: #bd2626; } .block-not-found-2 .button:hover { background: #bd2626; } .block-coming-soon li:before { background-color: #bd2626; } .block-coming-soon-2 li:after { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories a:hover, .widget-categories a.active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-top-posts a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-text hr { border-top-color: #bd2626; } .widget-text em { color: #bd2626; } .widget-archive a:hover, .widget-archive a.active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-tags a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter a:hover { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter .active { color: #bd2626; } .widget-categories-filter .active span { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-range { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-handle { background-color: #bd2626; } .widget-color-filter .active:before { border-color: #bd2626; } .widget-top-products .pic i { background-color: #bd2626; } .main-nav ul { background-color: #bd2626; }